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RNA-based therapeutics are already approved for a variety of human diseases. A large and diverse set of small regulatory RNAs have emerged as key regulators of gene expression during development and cellular homeostasis and are frequently mis-expressed in human disease. Their small size and molecular properties make small RNAs amenable as targets and therapeutics and provide physicians with a powerful new battery of agents to diagnose and treat disease. However, while thousands of small RNAs are known, relatively little is known about their roles and targets, and there is still a limited application of these molecules in the clinic. The specific aims of this meeting serve to address these deficiencies and are as follows: 1) Focus on the exciting biology of small regulatory RNAs, highlighting the best current research into the role that small RNAs play in fundamental processes; 2) Focus on the latest efforts to harness the power of these RNAs as agents in the fight against disease and provide the basic understanding that will drive the invention of powerful clinical tools; 3) Attract the best researchers working in small RNAs to one place for critical discussions that will advance the field and accelerate the bench to bedside use of this technology; and 4) Provide a stimulating environment where students, postdocs and junior investigators can present and discuss their research with the best minds in the field.