12 results in Publications

1. A bacterial cytidine deaminase toxin enables CRISPR-free mitochondrial base editing.

Publication 
Matched Fields: category : Publication
Raguram A, Liu DR, Mok BY, de Moraes MH, Zeng J, Bosch DE, Kotrys AV, Hsu F, Radey MC, Peterson SB, Mootha VK, Mougous JD
PII: 10.1038/s41586-020-2477-4, PUBMED 32641830, PMC PMC7381381, MID NIHMS1597977, DOI 10.1038/s41586-020-2477-4

ABSTRACT: Bacterial toxins represent a vast reservoir of biochemical diversity that can be repurposed for biomedical applications. Such proteins include a group of predicted interbacterial toxins of the deaminase superfamily, members of which have found application in gene-editing techniques1,2. Because previously described cytidine deaminases operate on single-stranded nucleic acids3, their use in base editing requires the unwinding of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA)-for example by a CRISPR-Cas9 system. Base ...
Fonseca JA, McCaffery JN, Kashentseva E, Singh B, Dmitriev IP, Curiel DT, Moreno A
PII: S0264-410X(17)30554-6, PUBMED 28483199, PMC PMC5522619, MID NIHMS871491, DOI 10.1016/j.vaccine.2017.04.062

ABSTRACT: Malaria remains a considerable burden on public health. In 2015, the WHO estimates there were 212 million malaria cases causing nearly 429,000 deaths globally. A highly effective malaria vaccine is needed to reduce the burden of this disease. We have developed an experimental vaccine candidate (PyCMP) based on pre-erythrocytic (CSP) and erythrocytic (MSP1) stage antigens derived from the rodent malaria parasite P. yoelii. Our protein-based vaccine construct induces protective antibodies and CD4+ ...

3. A robust and high-throughput Cre reporting and characterization system for the whole mouse brain.

Publication  [Mouse]
Matched Fields: category : Publication
Madisen L, Zwingman TA, Sunkin SM, Oh SW, Zariwala HA, Gu H, Ng LL, Palmiter RD, Hawrylycz MJ, Jones AR, Lein ES, Zeng H
PII: nn.2467, PUBMED 20023653, PMC PMC2840225, MID NIHMS165655, DOI 10.1038/nn.2467

ABSTRACT: The Cre/lox system is widely used in mice to achieve cell-type-specific gene expression. However, a strong and universally responding system to express genes under Cre control is still lacking. We have generated a set of Cre reporter mice with strong, ubiquitous expression of fluorescent proteins of different spectra. The robust native fluorescence of these reporters enables direct visualization of fine dendritic structures and axonal projections of the labeled neurons, which is useful in mappin ...
Organisms: Mouse;
Models: Ai14 mouse (congenic);

4. CHANGE-seq reveals genetic and epigenetic effects on CRISPR-Cas9 genome-wide activity.

Publication  - [In Vitro] [Biological Effects] [Human]
Matched Fields: category : Publication
Lazzarotto CR, Malinin NL, Li Y, Zhang R, Yang Y, Lee G, Cowley E, He Y, Lan X, Jividen K, Katta V, Kolmakova NG, Petersen CT, Qi Q, Strelcov E, Maragh S, Krenciute G, Ma J, Cheng Y, Tsai SQ
PII: 10.1038/s41587-020-0555-7, PUBMED 32541958, PMC PMC7652380, MID NIHMS1591991, DOI 10.1038/s41587-020-0555-7

ABSTRACT: Current methods can illuminate the genome-wide activity of CRISPR-Cas9 nucleases, but are not easily scalable to the throughput needed to fully understand the principles that govern Cas9 specificity. Here we describe 'circularization for high-throughput analysis of nuclease genome-wide effects by sequencing' (CHANGE-seq), a scalable, automatable tagmentation-based method for measuring the genome-wide activity of Cas9 in vitro. We applied CHANGE-seq to 110 single guide RNA targets across 13 thera ...

SCGE data tags...
Organisms: Human;
Models: CD4/CD8 Human Primary T cell;
Editors SpCas9;
Delivery System P3 Nucleofection Kit;

5. CRISPR-CasĪ¦ from huge phages is a hypercompact genome editor.

Publication  - [In Vitro] [Genome Editors] [Human]
Matched Fields: category : Publication
Pausch P, Al-Shayeb B, Bisom-Rapp E, Tsuchida CA, Li Z, Cress BF, Knott GJ, Jacobsen SE, Banfield JF, Doudna JA
PII: 369/6501/333, PUBMED 32675376, PMC PMC8207990, MID NIHMS1702779, DOI 10.1126/science.abb1400

ABSTRACT: CRISPR-Cas systems are found widely in prokaryotes, where they provide adaptive immunity against virus infection and plasmid transformation. We describe a minimal functional CRISPR-Cas system, comprising a single ~70-kilodalton protein, CasĪ¦, and a CRISPR array, encoded exclusively in the genomes of huge bacteriophages. CasĪ¦ uses a single active site for both CRISPR RNA (crRNA) processing and crRNA-guided DNA cutting to target foreign nucleic acids. This hypercompact system is active in vitro an ...

SCGE data tags...
Organisms: Human;
Models: HEK-293-TgEF1a-eGFP-BSD;
Editors CasĪ¦-1; CasĪ¦-3; CasĪ¦-2;
Delivery System Lipofectamine 3000;
Guo JY, He L, Qu TF, Liu YY, Liu K, Wang GP, Gong SS
PUBMED: 29889202, PMC PMC6101422, DOI 10.3791/57351

ABSTRACT: Local delivery of therapeutic drugs into the inner ear is a promising therapy for inner ear diseases. Injection through semicircular canals (canalostomy) has been shown to be a useful approach to local drug delivery into the inner ear. The goal of this article is to describe, in detail, the surgical techniques involved in canalostomy in both adult and neonatal mice. As indicated by fast-green dye and adeno-associated virus serotype 8 with the green fluorescent protein gene, the canalostomy facil ...
Organisms: Mouse;
Models: Ai14 mouse (congenic);
Editors CleanCapĀ® Cas9;
Delivery System 306-O12B;

7. Engineered amphiphilic peptides enable delivery of proteins and CRISPR-associated nucleases to airway epithelia.

Publication  - [In Vivo, In Vitro] [Delivery Systems] [Human, Mouse]
Matched Fields: category : Publication
Krishnamurthy S, Wohlford-Lenane C, Kandimalla S, Sartre G, Meyerholz DK, ThƩberge V, HallƩe S, DuperrƩ AM, Del'Guidice T, Lepetit-Stoffaes JP, Barbeau X, Guay D, McCray PB
PII: 10.1038/s41467-019-12922-y, PUBMED 31659165, PMC PMC6817825, DOI 10.1038/s41467-019-12922-y

ABSTRACT: The delivery of biologic cargoes to airway epithelial cells is challenging due to the formidable barriers imposed by its specialized and differentiated cells. Among cargoes, recombinant proteins offer therapeutic promise but the lack of effective delivery methods limits their development. Here, we achieve protein and SpCas9 or AsCas12a ribonucleoprotein (RNP) delivery to cultured human well-differentiated airway epithelial cells and mouse lungs with engineered amphiphilic peptides. These shuttle ...

SCGE data tags...
Organisms: Human; Mouse;
Models: BALB/c mouse; mTmG mouse; Primary Airway Epithelia (Human); NK;
Editors Alt-RĀ® S.p. Cas9 Nuclease V3; AsCas12a (Feldan Therapeutics); GFP-NLS; SpCas9 (Feldan Therapeutics); AsCas12a (IDT and Feldan Therapeutics);
Delivery System S10;

8. Engineered virus-like particles for efficient inĀ vivo delivery of therapeutic proteins.

Publication  - [In Vivo] [Delivery Systems] [Mouse]
Matched Fields: category : Publication
Banskota S, Raguram A, Suh S, Du SW, Davis JR, Choi EH, Wang X, Nielsen SC, Newby GA, Randolph PB, Osborn MJ, Musunuru K, Palczewski K, Liu DR
PII: S0092-8674(21)01484-7, PUBMED 35021064, PMC PMC8809250, DOI 10.1016/j.cell.2021.12.021

ABSTRACT: Methods to deliver gene editing agents inĀ vivo as ribonucleoproteins could offer safety advantages over nucleic acid delivery approaches. We report the development and application of engineered DNA-free virus-like particles (eVLPs) that efficiently package and deliver base editor or Cas9 ribonucleoproteins. By engineering VLPs to overcome cargo packaging, release, and localization bottlenecks, we developed fourth-generation eVLPs that mediate efficient base editing in several primary mouse and h ...

SCGE data tags...
Organisms: Mouse;
Models: C57BL/6J mouse;
Editors TadA-8e V106W;
Delivery System eVLP;
Morizane R, Bonventre JV
PII: nprot.2016.170, PUBMED 28005067, PMC PMC5278902, MID NIHMS840755, DOI 10.1038/nprot.2016.170

ABSTRACT: A variety of protocols have been developed that demonstrate the capability to differentiate human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) into kidney structures. Our goal was to develop a high-efficiency protocol to generate nephron progenitor cells (NPCs) and kidney organoids to facilitate applications for tissue engineering, disease modeling and chemical screening. Here, we describe a detailed protocol resulting in high-efficiency production (80-90%) of NPCs from hPSCs within 9 d of differentiation. Ki ...

10. In vivo gene editing in dystrophic mouse muscle and muscle stem cells.

Publication 
Matched Fields: category : Publication
Tabebordbar M, Zhu K, Cheng JKW, Chew WL, Widrick JJ, Yan WX, Maesner C, Wu EY, Xiao R, Ran FA, Cong L, Zhang F, Vandenberghe LH, Church GM, Wagers AJ
PUBMED: 26721686, PMC PMC4924477, MID NIHMS791917, DOI 10.1126/science.aad5177

ABSTRACT: Frame-disrupting mutations in the DMD gene, encoding dystrophin, compromise myofiber integrity and drive muscle deterioration in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Removing one or more exons from the mutated transcript can produce an in-frame mRNA and a truncated, but still functional, protein. In this study, we developed and tested a direct gene-editing approach to induce exon deletion and recover dystrophin expression in the mdx mouse model of DMD. Delivery by adeno-associated virus (AAV) of c ...
Newby GA, Liu DR, Zhang H, Kelly K, Lee J, Echeverria D, Cooper D, Panwala R, Amrani N, Chen Z, Gaston N, Wagh A, Xie J, Gao G, Wolfe SA, Khvorova A, Watts JK, Sontheimer EJ
PII: 7456042, PUBMED 38033325, PMC PMC10810193, DOI 10.1093/nar/gkad1125

ABSTRACT: Guide RNAs offer programmability for CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing but also add challenges for delivery. Chemical modification, which has been key to the success of oligonucleotide therapeutics, can enhance the stability, distribution, cellular uptake, and safety of nucleic acids. Previously, we engineered heavily and fully modified SpyCas9 crRNA and tracrRNA, which showed enhanced stability and retained activity when delivered to cultured cells in the form of the ribonucleoprotein complex. In this ...
Lu ZH, Kaliberov S, Zhang J, Muz B, Azab AK, Sohn RE, Kaliberova L, Du Y, Curiel DT, Arbeit JM
PII: labinvest201478, PUBMED 24955893, PMC PMC4117817, MID NIHMS594565, DOI 10.1038/labinvest.2014.78

ABSTRACT: Vascular endothelial cells (ECs) are ideal gene therapy targets as they provide widespread tissue access and are the first contact surfaces following intravenous vector administration. Human recombinant adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) is the most frequently used gene transfer system because of its appreciable transgene payload capacity and lack of somatic mutation risk. However, standard Ad5 vectors predominantly transduce liver but not the vasculature following intravenous administration. We recent ...

12 results in Publications

Type Subtype Name Description Source View Associated...
A bacterial cytidine deaminase toxin enables CRISPR-free mitochondrial base editing. Bacterial toxins represent a vast reservoir of biochemical diversity that can be repurposed for biomedical applications. Such proteins include a group of predicted interbacterial toxins of the deaminase superfamily, members of which have found application in gene-editing techniques1,2. Because previously described cytidine deaminases operate on single-stranded nucleic acids3, their use in base editing requires the unwinding of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA)-for example by a CRISPR-Cas9 system. Base editing within mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), however, has thus far been hindered by challenges associated with the delivery of guide RNA into the mitochondria4. As a consequence, manipulation of mtDNA to date has been limited to the targeted destruction of the mitochondrialĀ genome by designer nucleases9,10.Here we describe an interbacterial toxin, which we name DddA, that catalyses the deamination of cytidines within dsDNA. We engineered split-DddA halves that are non-toxic and inactive until brought together on target DNA by adjacently bound programmable DNA-binding proteins. Fusions of the split-DddA halves, transcription activator-like effector array proteins, and a uracil glycosylase inhibitor resulted in RNA-free DddA-derived cytosine base editors (DdCBEs) that catalyse Cā€¢G-to-Tā€¢A conversions in human mtDNA with high target specificity and product purity. We used DdCBEs to model a disease-associated mtDNA mutation in human cells, resulting in changes in respiration rates and oxidative phosphorylation. CRISPR-free DdCBEs enable the precise manipulation of mtDNA, rather than the elimination of mtDNA copies that results from its cleavage by targeted nucleases, with broad implications for the study and potential treatment of mitochondrial disorders.
A prime-boost immunization regimen based on a simian adenovirus 36 vectored multi-stage malaria vaccine induces protective immunity in mice. Malaria remains a considerable burden on public health. In 2015, the WHO estimates there were 212 million malaria cases causing nearly 429,000 deaths globally. A highly effective malaria vaccine is needed to reduce the burden of this disease. We have developed an experimental vaccine candidate (PyCMP) based on pre-erythrocytic (CSP) and erythrocytic (MSP1) stage antigens derived from the rodent malaria parasite P. yoelii. Our protein-based vaccine construct induces protective antibodies and CD4+ T cell responses. Based on evidence that viral vectors increase CD8+ T cell-mediated immunity, we also have tested heterologous prime-boost immunization regimens that included human adenovirus serotype 5 vector (Ad5), obtaining protective CD8+ T cell responses. While Ad5 is commonly used for vaccine studies, the high prevalence of pre-existing immunity to Ad5 severely compromises its utility. Here, we report the use of the novel simian adenovirus 36 (SAd36) as a candidate for a vectored malaria vaccine since this virus is not known to infect humans, and it is not neutralized by anti-Ad5 antibodies. Our study shows that the recombinant SAd36PyCMP can enhance specific CD8+ T cell response and elicit similar antibody titers when compared to an immunization regimen including the recombinant Ad5PyCMP. The robust immune responses induced by SAd36PyCMP are translated into a lower parasite load following P. yoelii infectious challenge when compared to mice immunized with Ad5PyCMP.
A robust and high-throughput Cre reporting and characterization system for the whole mouse brain. The Cre/lox system is widely used in mice to achieve cell-type-specific gene expression. However, a strong and universally responding system to express genes under Cre control is still lacking. We have generated a set of Cre reporter mice with strong, ubiquitous expression of fluorescent proteins of different spectra. The robust native fluorescence of these reporters enables direct visualization of fine dendritic structures and axonal projections of the labeled neurons, which is useful in mapping neuronal circuitry, imaging and tracking specific cell populations in vivo. Using these reporters and a high-throughput in situ hybridization platform, we are systematically profiling Cre-directed gene expression throughout the mouse brain in several Cre-driver lines, including new Cre lines targeting different cell types in the cortex. Our expression data are displayed in a public online database to help researchers assess the utility of various Cre-driver lines for cell-type-specific genetic manipulation.
CHANGE-seq reveals genetic and epigenetic effects on CRISPR-Cas9 genome-wide activity. Current methods can illuminate the genome-wide activity of CRISPR-Cas9 nucleases, but are not easily scalable to the throughput needed to fully understand the principles that govern Cas9 specificity. Here we describe 'circularization for high-throughput analysis of nuclease genome-wide effects by sequencing' (CHANGE-seq), a scalable, automatable tagmentation-based method for measuring the genome-wide activity of Cas9 in vitro. We applied CHANGE-seq to 110 single guide RNA targets across 13 therapeutically relevant loci in human primary T cells and identified 201,934 off-target sites, enabling the training of a machine learning model to predict off-target activity. Comparing matched genome-wide off-target, chromatin modification and accessibility, and transcriptional data, we found that cellular off-target activity was two to four times more likely to occur near active promoters, enhancers and transcribed regions. Finally, CHANGE-seq analysis of six targets across eight individual genomes revealed that human single-nucleotide variation had significant effects on activity at ~15.2% of off-target sites analyzed. CHANGE-seq is a simplified, sensitive and scalable approach to understanding the specificity of genome editors.
CRISPR-CasĪ¦ from huge phages is a hypercompact genome editor. CRISPR-Cas systems are found widely in prokaryotes, where they provide adaptive immunity against virus infection and plasmid transformation. We describe a minimal functional CRISPR-Cas system, comprising a single ~70-kilodalton protein, CasĪ¦, and a CRISPR array, encoded exclusively in the genomes of huge bacteriophages. CasĪ¦ uses a single active site for both CRISPR RNA (crRNA) processing and crRNA-guided DNA cutting to target foreign nucleic acids. This hypercompact system is active in vitro and in human and plant cells with expanded target recognition capabilities relative to other CRISPR-Cas proteins. Useful for genome editing and DNA detection but with a molecular weight half that of Cas9 and Cas12a genome-editing enzymes, CasĪ¦ offers advantages for cellular delivery that expand the genome editing toolbox.
Canalostomy As a Surgical Approach to Local Drug Delivery into the Inner Ears of Adult and Neonatal Mice. Local delivery of therapeutic drugs into the inner ear is a promising therapy for inner ear diseases. Injection through semicircular canals (canalostomy) has been shown to be a useful approach to local drug delivery into the inner ear. The goal of this article is to describe, in detail, the surgical techniques involved in canalostomy in both adult and neonatal mice. As indicated by fast-green dye and adeno-associated virus serotype 8 with the green fluorescent protein gene, the canalostomy facilitated broad distribution of injected reagents in the cochlea and vestibular end-organs with minimal damage to hearing and vestibular function. The surgery was successfully implemented in both adult and neonatal mice; indeed, multiple surgeries could be performed if required. In conclusion, canalostomy is an effective and safe approach to drug delivery into the inner ears of adult and neonatal mice and may be used to treat human inner ear diseases in the future.
Engineered amphiphilic peptides enable delivery of proteins and CRISPR-associated nucleases to airway epithelia. The delivery of biologic cargoes to airway epithelial cells is challenging due to the formidable barriers imposed by its specialized and differentiated cells. Among cargoes, recombinant proteins offer therapeutic promise but the lack of effective delivery methods limits their development. Here, we achieve protein and SpCas9 or AsCas12a ribonucleoprotein (RNP) delivery to cultured human well-differentiated airway epithelial cells and mouse lungs with engineered amphiphilic peptides. These shuttle peptides, non-covalently combined with GFP protein or CRISPR-associated nuclease (Cas) RNP, allow rapid entry into cultured human ciliated and non-ciliated epithelial cells and mouse airway epithelia. Instillation of shuttle peptides combined with SpCas9 or AsCas12a RNP achieves editing of loxP sites in airway epithelia of ROSAmT/mG mice. We observe no evidence of short-term toxicity with a widespread distribution restricted to the respiratory tract. This peptide-based technology advances potential therapeutic avenues for protein and Cas RNP delivery to refractory airway epithelial cells.
Engineered virus-like particles for efficient inĀ vivo delivery of therapeutic proteins. Methods to deliver gene editing agents inĀ vivo as ribonucleoproteins could offer safety advantages over nucleic acid delivery approaches. We report the development and application of engineered DNA-free virus-like particles (eVLPs) that efficiently package and deliver base editor or Cas9 ribonucleoproteins. By engineering VLPs to overcome cargo packaging, release, and localization bottlenecks, we developed fourth-generation eVLPs that mediate efficient base editing in several primary mouse and human cell types. Using different glycoproteins in eVLPs alters their cellular tropism. Single injections of eVLPs into mice support therapeutic levels of base editing in multiple tissues, reducing serum Pcsk9 levels 78% following 63% liver editing, and partially restoring visual function in a mouse model of genetic blindness. InĀ vitro and inĀ vivo off-target editing from eVLPs was virtually undetected, an improvement over AAV or plasmid delivery. These results establish eVLPs as promising vehicles for therapeutic macromolecule delivery that combine key advantages of both viral and nonviral delivery.
Generation of nephron progenitor cells and kidney organoids from human pluripotent stem cells. A variety of protocols have been developed that demonstrate the capability to differentiate human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) into kidney structures. Our goal was to develop a high-efficiency protocol to generate nephron progenitor cells (NPCs) and kidney organoids to facilitate applications for tissue engineering, disease modeling and chemical screening. Here, we describe a detailed protocol resulting in high-efficiency production (80-90%) of NPCs from hPSCs within 9 d of differentiation. Kidney organoids were generated from NPCs within 12 d with high reproducibility using 96-well plates suitable for chemical screening. The protocol requires skills for culturing hPSCs and careful attention to morphological changes indicative of differentiation. This kidney organoid system provides a platform for studies of human kidney development, modeling of kidney diseases, nephrotoxicity and kidney regeneration. The system provides a model for in vitro study of kidney intracellular and intercompartmental interactions using differentiated human cells in an appropriate nephron and stromal context.
In vivo gene editing in dystrophic mouse muscle and muscle stem cells. Frame-disrupting mutations in the DMD gene, encoding dystrophin, compromise myofiber integrity and drive muscle deterioration in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Removing one or more exons from the mutated transcript can produce an in-frame mRNA and a truncated, but still functional, protein. In this study, we developed and tested a direct gene-editing approach to induce exon deletion and recover dystrophin expression in the mdx mouse model of DMD. Delivery by adeno-associated virus (AAV) of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9 endonucleases coupled with paired guide RNAs flanking the mutated Dmd exon23 resulted in excision of intervening DNA and restored the Dmd reading frame in myofibers, cardiomyocytes, and muscle stem cells after local or systemic delivery. AAV-Dmd CRISPR treatment partially recovered muscle functional deficiencies and generated a pool of endogenously corrected myogenic precursors in mdx mouse muscle.
Self-delivering, chemically modified CRISPR RNAs for AAV co-delivery and genome editing in vivo. Guide RNAs offer programmability for CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing but also add challenges for delivery. Chemical modification, which has been key to the success of oligonucleotide therapeutics, can enhance the stability, distribution, cellular uptake, and safety of nucleic acids. Previously, we engineered heavily and fully modified SpyCas9 crRNA and tracrRNA, which showed enhanced stability and retained activity when delivered to cultured cells in the form of the ribonucleoprotein complex. In this study, we report that a short, fully stabilized oligonucleotide (a 'protecting oligo'), which can be displaced by tracrRNA annealing, can significantly enhance the potency and stability of a heavily modified crRNA. Furthermore, protecting oligos allow various bioconjugates to be appended, thereby improving cellular uptake and biodistribution of crRNA in vivo. Finally, we achieved in vivo genome editing in adult mouse liver and central nervous system via co-delivery of unformulated, chemically modified crRNAs with protecting oligos and AAV vectors that express tracrRNA and either SpyCas9 or a base editor derivative. Our proof-of-concept establishment of AAV/crRNA co-delivery offers a route towards transient editing activity, target multiplexing, guide redosing, and vector inactivation.
The myeloid-binding peptide adenoviral vector enables multi-organ vascular endothelial gene targeting. Vascular endothelial cells (ECs) are ideal gene therapy targets as they provide widespread tissue access and are the first contact surfaces following intravenous vector administration. Human recombinant adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) is the most frequently used gene transfer system because of its appreciable transgene payload capacity and lack of somatic mutation risk. However, standard Ad5 vectors predominantly transduce liver but not the vasculature following intravenous administration. We recently developed an Ad5 vector with a myeloid cell-binding peptide (MBP) incorporated into the knob-deleted, T4 fibritin chimeric fiber (Ad.MBP). This vector was shown to transduce pulmonary ECs presumably via a vector handoff mechanism. Here we tested the body-wide tropism of the Ad.MBP vector, its myeloid cell necessity, and vector-EC expression dose response. Using comprehensive multi-organ co-immunofluorescence analysis, we discovered that Ad.MBP produced widespread EC transduction in the lung, heart, kidney, skeletal muscle, pancreas, small bowel, and brain. Surprisingly, Ad.MBP retained hepatocyte tropism albeit at a reduced frequency compared with the standard Ad5. While binding specifically to myeloid cells ex vivo, multi-organ Ad.MBP expression was not dependent on circulating monocytes or macrophages. Ad.MBP dose de-escalation maintained full lung-targeting capacity but drastically reduced transgene expression in other organs. Swapping the EC-specific ROBO4 for the CMV promoter/enhancer abrogated hepatocyte expression but also reduced gene expression in other organs. Collectively, our multilevel targeting strategy could enable therapeutic biological production in previously inaccessible organs that pertain to the most debilitating or lethal human diseases.